Friday, August 26, 2011

Mother of Mercy, Could this be the End of Amway?

(Originally Posted on Quixtar Cult Intervention on September 25, 2009)

By David Brear, Guide to the Amway Labyrinth:

‘It is my opinion that the Amway business is run in a manner that is parallel to that of major organized crime groups, in particular the Mafia. The structure and function of major organized crime groups, generally consisting of enterprises engaging in patterns of legal and illegal activity, was the prototype forming the basis of federal and state legislation that I have been involved in drafting. The same structure and function, with associated enterprises engaging in patterns of legal and illegal activity, is found in the Amway business.’

Professor G. Robert Blakey (b. 1936)

‘Every time Europe looks across the Atlantic to see the American eagle, it observes only the rear end of an ostrich.’

H.G. Wells (1866-1946)

To the eternal shame of the United States of America, for more than 50 years, successive grinning generations of the ‘Amway’ mob have been permitted to build a mind-numbing labyrinth of legally-registered corporate structures (pursuing lawful, and/or unlawful, activities) in order to peddle a fake ‘Business Opportunity’ which they (and their bleating flock of apologists) steadfastly pretend to be authentic. During this period, tens of millions of individuals around the globe (arbitrarily defined as ‘Independent Business Owners’) have been gradually churned through an ongoing closed-market swindle and associated advanced fee fraud. However, a significant minority (usually with access to independent funds) have had their minds hijacked by a typical totalitarian perversion of traditional, dualistic (‘positive versus negative’), ritual belief systems. Although these unquestioning core-adherents were manipulated by their existing beliefs and instinctual desires (giving them the illusion that they were making a free-choice), they were, in fact, subjected to co-ordinated, devious techniques of social, psychological and physical persuasion designed to facilitate the shutting down of an individual’s critical, and evaluative, faculties without his/her fully-informed consent. In this way, the worst-case ‘Amway’ victims have been (effectively) coerced into dissipating all their mental, physical and financial resources to the benefit of self-proclaimed ‘Multilevel Marketing’ gurus whom they continued to trust and follow no matter what suffering this entailed. An unknown number of de facto ‘Amway’ slaves have killed themselves. Only a handful of the numerous core-group survivors have refused to be intimidated, and/or bought off, and become whistle blowers. Major criminal organizations were identified by federal legislators 40 years ago (when extended criminal penalties, and powerful civil remedies, were provided to hold their bosses to account). Yet federal prosecutors have (so far) done nothing to prevent the ‘Amway’ mob, and their associate enterprises, from amassing billions of stolen dollars. Indeed, certain leading US political figures and law enforcement agents have enthusiastically assisted in protecting the group’s kitsch front and obstructed full exposure of the pernicious racket that lurks behind it. Tellingly, the sanctimonious rulers of the ‘Amway’ mob have invested some of their ill-gotten gains to infiltrate, and corrupt, traditional culture to a degree which makes even the most notorious ‘Mafia Bosses’ look like a bunch of amateurs. It is no wonder that they continue to grin from ear to ear.

On September 6th 1949 (along with Michael Pacetti), two hitherto-unremarkable USAAF veterans of Dutch Protestant origin, Richard De Vos (aged 23) and Jay Van Andel (aged 25), registered the ‘Ja-Ri Corporation.’ However, this (apparently independent) enterprise was wholly the agent of another one, the ‘Nutrilite Products Company Inc.’
‘Nutrilite’ was (to say the least) a highly-controversial trademark owned by a certain Carl F. Rehnborg a.k.a. ‘Dr.’ Rehnborg,

a one-time penniless toothpaste salesman of German origin who’d acquired a considerable fortune by reinventing himself as an ordinary man turned selfless capitalist superman – a visionary autodidactic nutritionist, chemist, and industrialist who had not only invented a miraculous means of saving mankind from malnutrition and sickness, but also a miraculous ‘New Business System’ (based on the Christian-inspired principle of helping others to succeed) capable of bringing anyone freedom, prosperity and happiness. Officials from the Food and Drug Administration Bureau of Enforcement, who challenged the authenticity of Rehnborg (and his de facto associate enterprises) in the federal courts during two decades, privately knew him to be nothing more than the leader of a little gang of absurd charlatans (protected by an aggressive echelon of convincing attorneys) who’d combined, and updated, the medicine show and Ponzi scheme to reflect the spirit of the age. However, Rehnborg (who posed as the innocent victim of big government) almost certainly suffered from severe and inflexible Narcissistic Personality Disorder. According to the ‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,’ NPD has nine recognised diagnostic criteria (five of which are required for a diagnosis):
· has a grandiose sense of self-importance
· is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, ideal love, etc.
· believes that he/she is special and unique and can only be understood by other special people.
· requires excessive admiration.
· strong sense of self-entitlement.
· takes advantage of others to achieve his/her own ends.
· lacks empathy.
· is often envious or believes that others are envious of him/her.
· arrogant disposition.

Tellingly, the authorized (‘Amway’ ) version of Rehnborg’s life sounds like a thrilling comic-book yarn written by L. Ron Hubbard:
In 1915, Rehnborg (aged 25) voyaged to China on business. After 12 years of living in the Far East (where he witnessed ‘mass-starvation’ and survived starvation himself whilst besieged in Shanghai by supplementing his diet with an improvised ‘vitamin and mineral-enriched broth made from grasses, powdered limestone, animal bones, rusty nails,’ etc.) Rehnborg sailed across the Pacific and landed on the West Coast of the USA. Despite having no money, he managed to establish a research laboratory in his modest loft-apartment on California’s Balboa Island. Assisted by his dutiful wife (Edith), Rehnborg then dedicated 6 years of his life to develop a ‘Revolutionary New Food Supplement.’ He first naively tried to give his secret formula away, but the cynical world wasn’t interested. So, in 1934, he reluctantly decided to create ‘California Vitamins Inc.’ In 1939, Rehnborg moved his ‘Business’ to a ‘Manufacturing and Processing Facility’ in Buena Park, California, and created the ‘Nutrilite Products Company Inc.’ By 1947, acting in association with a ‘Network Sponsoring Company’, ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.’ (to whom he’d sold ‘National Exclusive Nutrilite Distribution Rights’) Rehnborg (aged 57) had created the ‘World’s First Multilevel Marketing Scheme.’ Starting from nothing, he had become an admired and respected millionaire by ‘Helping thousands of Americans to start their own Businesses.’

There is no reason to doubt that Rehnborg (who worked as a commercial agent for Colgate &Co) was in China during, and after, WW I. Whilst the various exciting episodes in his oriental odyssey (although highly implausible) can be neither proved nor disproved, the truth about Rehnborg’s convoluted ‘Rags to Riches’ American fairy-tale is an entirely different matter. Perhaps its just a coincidence, but in 1934 — less than 12 months after the world’s most blood-thirsty vegetarian, Adolf Hitler, had established his ‘National Socialist’ Utopia — Rehnborg (aged 44) created ‘California Vitamins Inc.’, to manufacture and distribute what he arbitrarily defined as the ‘World’s First Multi-Mineral/Multivitamin Plant-Based Food Supplement - a Unique Combination of Vitamins and Minerals in a Special Base.’ At first, this so-called ‘Health Tonic’ was produced and peddled (in private) by Rehnborg himself in insignificant quantities. Consequently, it slipped past regulators. However, anyone with an ounce of common sense could immediately tell that his ‘invention’ was just another inert potion (in the absurd tradition of the medicine show); a random mixture of cheaply-procured common substances with an unjustifiable price tag.

It had probably taken Rehnborg 6 hours to concoct, not 6 years. Up to 1939, Rehnborg avoided the attention of government agents. He relied only word of mouth to sustain and expand his little game of scientific make-believe. Then (apparently after discovering the well-known advertising maxim, ‘if you want to hide something: make as big as you possibly can’), Rehnborg suddenly changed the name of his game to the technical-sounding ‘Nutrilite Products Company Inc.’ and he moved his quackery onto an almost unprecedented scale. Soon, he was legally employing dozens of white-coated workers in purpose-built industrial, and laboratory, buildings in Buena Park, California. He also acquired some farmland near to Hemet in the San Jancinto valley, but it is unclear exactly where he found all the necessary capital.

To casual observers, Rehnborg’s collection of new props looked like any other lawful enterprise. His staff were rational and honest folk whose own innocence brought credibility. At this time, Rehnborg rechristened his ‘invention’, ‘Double X (a.k.a. ‘XX’) Supplement.’

He now proposed to offer Californians two ‘complimentary products’ in one box - a jar of red ‘Multivitamin Capsules’ and a packet of bluish green ‘Multi-Mineral Pills.’ The whole package was deliberately designed to look pure and scientific (like a proprietary medicine), but, tellingly, the price was fixed at just less than $20 a box (the equivalent of several hundred dollars today). Rehnborg claimed that the ‘XX’ brand-name was derived from the Roman numeral representing twenty. Interestingly, it could also be read as ‘double cross.’ When the deluded former toothpaste salesman’s pretty products were routinely analysed by qualified scientists at the FDA, it was discovered that (although they contained essentially what it said on the labels and were quite harmless) ‘XX Supplement’ really did mostly comprise a random (but precisely measured) mixture of cheaply-procured, common substances (yeast, minerals and dried vegetable extracts: alfalfa; parsley; watercress; etc.). FDA experts later estimated that ‘XX Supplement’ cost no more than a few cents a box to produce. Thus, FDA lawyers knew that Rehnborg was, in fact, using authentic pharmaceutical equipment to fabricate a placebo, labelling it as a ‘Health Tonic’ (a meaningless term) and peddling it at a huge mark up (at least 1000%). This crack-pot pseudo-scientific swindle, which was tantamount to selling a bedazzling amalgam of valueless base-metals for the price of pure gold, might have been quickly nipped in the bud simply by charging Rehnborg with fraud. Apparently, prosecutors never considered the possibility that they might be dealing with someone with severe psychological problems and whose own inflexible delusions were contagious. Instead, they felt obliged to take no action; reasoning that, by truthfully listing the banal ingredients, but avoiding making any specific therapeutic claims, on his packaging, Rehnborg had found a loophole in federal laws concerning the criminal misbranding of medicines. As a result, an updated version of an age-old fiction was permitted to be mass-marketed as fact. Unfortunately, the lack of any rigorous official challenge only brought its author more credibility. Not surprisingly, a host of copy-cat ‘Health Tonic’ scams quickly sprang up.

As WWII drew to its close, ‘XX Supplement’ had lost its novelty, so Rehnborg (aged 55) acquired two well-chosen associates who resembled favorite uncles, Lee S. Mytinger and William S. Casselberry (described by FDA officials as a ‘cemetery-plot salesman’ and a ‘psychologist’). The result was ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.,’ a second (apparently independent) corporate structure peddling ‘Exclusive Commission-Agency Rights’ to ‘Distribute XX Supplement’ using (what was first defined by the company’s owners as) a ‘New Business Model.’ In theory… you could try to sell ‘XX Supplement’ to your social contacts for a small profit, but, if you wanted to make big money, you didn’t need to sell anything… you could buy a monthly quota of ‘XX Supplement’ yourself and sign-up your social contacts to do the same… your ‘Sponsored Recruits’ would then ‘Sponsor’ their own social contacts, etc., ‘compensation’ would automatically multiply in an infinitely-expanding geometric progression. ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.’ offered a mind-numbing ‘contract’ in which the ‘company’ undertook to pay its ‘Independent Distributors’ an escalating ‘monthly commission’ on the totality of their escalating ‘Business Volume’ [i.e. their own regular monthly purchases (defined as ‘Sales’), added to the regular monthly purchases (defined as ‘Sales’) of their ‘Sponsored Recruits’, and those of the recruits of their recruits, etc. etc. ad infinitum].

In reality, the new set-up was merely another chapter of Rehnborg’s typical, narcissistic fantasies, but to casual observers ‘Nutrilite Products Company Inc.’ appeared to be exclusively manufacturing for, and wholesaling ‘XX Supplement’ to, ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.,’ whose commission agents, in turn, appeared to be retailing it to the public. Although ‘XX Supplement’ was presented as an ‘Exclusive, Unique and Secret Formula’ which couldn’t be found in drug stores, its constituents could easily be found at a tiny fraction of their fixed assembled-price. To anyone with an ounce of common sense, Rehnborg’s products were (effectively) worthless and impossible to sell on the open market. Therefore, the overwhelming majority of final customers were the non-salaried agents of the second corporate structure, which itself was the sole customer and agent of the first corporate structure. In order for them to maintain the false hope that if they signed-up further contributing participants they would eventually become rich, the participants in this camouflaged money game were obliged by its rules to hand over a regular payment to Mytinger and Casselberry to be shared with Rehnborg. From all points of view (medical, economic, legal, etc.), ‘XX Supplement’ might have well not existed. New converts were supplied with a $49.50 ‘Business Kit’ (i.e. a large cardboard box stuffed with a month’s supply of ‘XX Supplement’ and a fat folder containing page after page of mystifying pseudo-economic/medical presentations and diagrams, and instructions in how to go about remembering, contacting and recruiting everyone they’d ever known during their lives). These presentations contained the concrete evidence which FDA lawyers would later use to take action. Contributing participants were being instructed to smile, project enthusiasm, and to recite a precisely-worded script which proclaimed ‘Nutrilite XX Supplement’ to be ‘good value,’ because it could ‘cure or prevent,’ virtually any known human illness.

Even though it wasn’t his area of responsibility, FDA Legal Counsel (1939- 1972), William H. Goodrich, was probably the first US law enforcement agent to deduce that the innocent baby that Rehnborg, Mytinger and Casselberry had baptised a ‘New Business Model’ (later to become known as: ‘Multilevel Marketing’) was actually the same old delinquent previously known as ‘pyramid selling.’ Again, anyone with an ounce of common sense could work out immediately that, since Rehnborg was a medical alchemist, the strong likelihood was that Mytinger and Casselberry were economic alchemists. The dubious trio were obviously acting in association, but, unfortunately, agents of the FDA and those of the FTC and FBI acted independently. However, in the late 1940s, the rapidly-expanding ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.’ dossier was already in the hands of prosecutors. Apparently, they still never considered the possibility that they might be dealing with persons with severe psychological problems and whose own inflexible delusions were contagious. Instead, they still felt obliged to take no action; this time reasoning that, by arbitrarily defining illegal internal payments as ‘Sales,’ Mytinger and Casselberry had found a loophole in federal laws concerning pyramid scams and Ponzi schemes. As a result, another updated version of an age-old fiction was permitted to be mass-marketed as fact. Yet again, the lack of any rigorous official challenge only brought its authors more credibility. Not surprisingly, a host of copy-cat swindles (camouflaged by banal, but pricey, products) quickly sprang up.

By 1947, Rehnborg, Mytinger and Casselberry were steadfastly pretending ‘15 000 Successful Distributorships across the USA,’ with ‘Sales’ totalling ‘$500 000 dollars per month.’ They had also organized the production of a ‘Free’ booklet, ‘How to Get Well and Stay Well,’ in which they further pretended that ‘Nutrilite Double X Supplement’ had ‘cured or greatly helped such common ailments’ as : ‘Low blood pressure, Ulcers, Mental depression, Pyorrhoea, Muscular twitching, rickets, Worry over small things, Tonsillitis, Hay Fever, Sensitivity to noise, Underweight, Easily tired, Gas in stomach, Cuts heal slowly, Faulty vision, Headache, Constipation, Anaemia Boils, Flabby tissues, Hysterical tendency, Eczema, Overweight, Faulty memory, Lack of ambition, Certain Bone conditions, Nervousness, Nosebleed, Insomnia, Allergies, Asthma, Restlessness, Bad skin colour, Poor appetite, Biliousness, Neuritis, Night blindness, Migraine, High blood pressure, Sinus trouble, Lack of concentration, Dental caries, Irregular heartbeat, Colitis, Craving for sour foods, Arthritis, Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Deafness, Subject to colds.’

Rehnborg now played the wise paternal role of ‘Scientific Adviser’ to ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.’ He toured the USA preaching the gospel to crowds of unquestioning admirers — ‘for less than $20 a month, Nutrilite XX Supplement’ was the ‘Answer to Man’s Search for Health.’ After both companies’ owners were approached by FDA officials and warned that they could face criminal prosecution for misbranding, their lawyers promised that the booklet would be ‘revised.’ Specific therapeutic claims were supposed to be eliminated. ‘All illnesses’ suddenly became a ‘state of nonhealth’ produced by ‘chemical imbalance’.… ‘Nutrilite XX Supplement’ cured nothing, it merely ‘enabled people to Get Well and stay Well’ by themselves. However, pages 41-52 of the comic-book still recounted alleged case-histories explaining that ‘Nutrilite brought relief from such ailments as diabetes, feeblemindedness, stomach pains, sneezing and weeping.’ Not surprisingly, FDA officials were not impressed, so, in 1948, they finally launched a co-ordinated plan of raids, and seizures of ‘Nutrilite XX Supplement’ and associated publications, with the intention of forcing the counterfeit ‘company’ to close down or go to trial.

In 1951, after a series of protracted lawsuits, appeals and countersuits (in which Mytinger and Casselberry hid behind slick attorneys who cleverly manipulated one conservative judge’s existing beliefs by portraying their clients as freedom-loving American entrepreneurs being unjustly attacked by jealous bureaucrats with sinister hidden motives), the FDA eventually obtained (on behalf of the people) a permanent Supreme Court injunction against ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.’ preventing ‘Distributors’ from referring to 50 publications making false claims about ‘Health Tonics and Food Supplements’ (including various ‘Revised Editions’ of ‘How to Get Well and Stay Well’). FDA lawyers proved Mytinger and Casselberry to have lied on oath when they testified to the Supreme Court that no further false claims were being made. FDA agents had, in fact, infiltrated the organization (as potential recruits) and recorded deluded proselytizers chanting the same cure-all mantra about ‘XX Supplement.’ Fearing that their monopoly of information might be lost, in 1954, Rehnborg, Mytinger and Casselberry produced a kitsch 20 minute colour propaganda film, ‘From The Ground Up’ (featuring themselves as three ordinary guys turned philanthropic farmers, scientists and industrialists), and they began to publish their own propaganda magazine, ‘Nutrilite News’ (stuffed with kitsch colour photos of happy, healthy and wealthy ‘Distributors’). At this time, more than ‘80 000 Distributorships’ conducting Multi-Million Dollar ‘Total Annual Sales’ were being claimed in the USA, whilst flag-waving ‘Rallies and Seminars’ (addressed by clean-cut, young ‘Christian Distributors’ like Rich De Vos and Jay Van Andel) were regular events. Yet, no independent quantifiable evidence was ever produced to prove what percentage of so-called ‘Nutrilite Sales’ were authentic retail transactions, or how many people who signed a ‘contract’ with ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.’ actually received an overall material benefit from the operation of what its instigators arbitrarily defined as an ‘Independent Business.’ Excluding the tiny percentage of grinning schills at the top of the pyramid, the rolling failure-rate was 100% . Already tens of thousands of Americans were being churned through the pyramid’s base annually. Since there was (effectively) no external revenue, participants were actually buying infinite shares in their own finite money. Mysteriously, the FTC’s only visible interest in ‘Mytinger and Casselberry Inc.’ came as a result of complaints by a rival company alleging breaches in civil laws concerning restraint of trade. Tellingly, even though they were defined in their contracts as ‘Independent Business Owners,’ unpaid proselytizers for ‘Nutrilite’ were forbidden (on pain of unilateral termination of their contracts) to offer any other brand of products.

In 1959, when it seemed that ‘Mytinger and Casselberry/Nutrilite Products Inc.’ might finally be shut down (under the ‘Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act 3381-3383’, rather than anti-pyramid scams legislation) De Vos and Van Andel created the ‘American Way Association’ (soon rechristened ‘Amway’) - the first of what was to become a shoal of red, white and blue herrings. Indeed, countless, de facto associate enterprises continue to be created, dissolved and subverted. Cheekily, the ‘Nutrilite’ company was itself absorbed into the ‘Amway’ labyrinth in the early 1970s. For more than half a century, this shifty edifice has successfully prevented, and/or diverted, investigation of an ongoing criminal organization and isolated its beneficiaries from liability.

The Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act (enacted by section 901 [a.] of the Organized Crime Control Act) is a United States federal law which (in theory) provides extended criminal penalties for, and powerful civil remedies against, the leaders and agents of ongoing criminal organizations and their de facto associate enterprises. In the early 1960s, after Robert Kennedy

was appointed Attorney General, the US Dept. of Justice was given a significant role in a co-ordinated national ‘Strike Force,’ established under the direction of the Inspector General of the US Dept. of Labor. This new initiative was the product of an overt joint-congressional policy to hold the leaders of major organized crime groups to account, as well as dismantle their webs of corrupt political figures, judges, attorneys, trade union officials, senior law enforcement agents, etc. Sadly, the long-time Director of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover

is now known to have been under the influence of racketeers (who were certainly bribing, and probably blackmailing, him).
Despite a growing mountain of conclusive evidence, for decades it was the official policy of the FBI to deny the existence of the ‘Mafia’ and ‘National Crime Syndicate.’ Yet, the average American knew full-well that a pernicious, criminal underworld had been steadily gnawing its way into traditional culture since the federal government had foolishly passed an unenforceable law prohibiting the sale of alcohol (1919-1933), and (effectively) handed a multi-billion dollar industry, and half billion dollar source of tax-revenue, to hitherto small-time gangsters. However, although the Democratic administration’s will to protect US citizens was apparently hardened by the assassinations of President Kennedy and Robert Kennedy, existing legislation was inadequate. Paradoxically, the US Justice Dept. had an ‘Organized Crime and Racketeering Section,’ but technically no such offences existed. Thus, RICO was signed into law in 1970 by the new Republican President, Richard Nixon, but only as a result of ground-breaking recommendations made in the late 1960s by President Johnson’s Commission to Examine Crime in America. The Bill was drafted by Prof. G. Robert Blakey

(former Special Attorney in the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section of the Justice Dept.) under the close supervision of the veteran Democratic Senator for Arkansas, John Little McClellan. Subsequently (guided by Prof. Blakey), a number of individual States enacted similar legislation.

RICO was, in many respects, an unprecedented law for a democracy in time of peace. Indeed, opponents still limply claim that it steps beyond the bounds of the US Constitution. Ironically, it was designed to protect the US Constitution and address an enduring, internal threat to the Republic that remains as dangerous as any external menace. However, in 1970, RICO appeared for all the world to be directed only against the Italian American ‘Mafia’ (although its authors steadfastly refuted this). Whether intentional or not, the Italian-sounding acronym, RICO, is unfortunately the same as that of the anti-hero of the classic 1931 Hollywood gangster movie, ‘Little Caesar’ (starring Edward G. Robinson,

directed by Mervyn LeRoy and based on the 1929 Novel by William R. Burnett). RICO was drafted by lawyers for lawyers, and is, therefore, legalistic, but, at first glance, it can appear to be written in plain language; mainly because it also contains many popular terms. Even when deconstructed, the Act (like the phenomenon it addresses) cannot be fully-understood in isolation. In reality, in respect of the ‘Mafia,’ RICO legislators were trying to shut the stable door long after the horse had bolted. Indeed, another full decade was to elapse before a ‘Mafia Boss,’ Frank Tieri, was actually convicted.

Under RICO, an individual who is a member of any enterprise that has committed any two of 35 crimes (27 federal and 8 State) within a period of 10 years can be charged with ‘racketeering activity.’ The penalty for this crime is a fine of $250 000, and/or 20 years in prison, per racketeering count. In addition the convicted racketeer must forfeit all benefits and any interest on these benefits derived from a ‘pattern of racketeering activity.’ RICO also allows for any individual victimized by the actions of a criminal organization to file a civil suit against the racketeers and, if successful, claim triple damages. Furthermore, when a person is indicted under RICO, the US Attorney has the option of seeking a pre-trial restraining order, or injunction, to seize the defendant’s assets and, thus, block the transfer of property which might be forfeited in the future. RICO violations include: embezzlement, theft, fraud, obstruction of justice, money laundering, kidnapping, extortion, drug trafficking, dealing in obscene material, slavery, murder, arson, acts of terrorism, etc. The US Supreme Court decided that a ‘pattern of racketeering activity’ is proved when criminal acts are related (i.e. ‘they have the same or similar purposes, results, participants, victims or methods of commission, or otherwise are interrelated by distinguishing characteristics and are not isolated events.’). RICO can be applied in cases where retributive, and/or retaliatory, civil, and/or criminal, prosecutions are brought by racketeers against individuals (or corporate structures) who co-operate with federal law enforcement, and/or intelligence, agencies. Thus, the malicious utilization of the courts (by racketeers, and their attorneys) to punish, and/or silence, whistle blowers, and/or victims, is also in breach of RICO.

Copyright David Brear September 2009

Related Links To This Blog Post:

Interview with William W. Goodrich, Office of General Counsel, 1939 - 1971

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